Samson: An Alternative View
By Kyle Pope
If you have studied what the Bible says about the Old
Testament judge Samson you may, like many of us, have come away from the study
puzzled and questioning how such a seemingly carnal and impulsive man could be
considered among the great figures who acted "by faith" (see Hebrews
11:32-40). The usual explanation
of Samson is that, in spite of his shortcomings, God used him to deliver
Israel. This may be the best way
to understand Samson, but in doing some study of the book of Judges recently I
became uncomfortable with the fact that I found myself apologizing for the
behavior of one whom the Holy Spirit counts among the faithful. A closer look at the texts which
describe this man made me wonder if my own view of Samson's "wild
man" image had been colored more by Hollywood than by what the
Scripture actually says about him?
In light of that I found the following points which are offered as a
possible alternative interpretation of this puzzling man.
A Nazirite for Life. Before
Samson is even born his parents are told, "...the child shall be a
Nazirite to God from the womb to the day of his death." (Jud 13:7,
NKJV). The Nazirite vow was an
institution set up by God under the Law of Moses whereby a person dedicated
themselves to God for period of separation. During this time the person was to neither eat or drink
anything that came from the vine (Numbers 6:3,4). The Nazirite was not to touch a "dead body" (Num
6:6). Even if a family member died
he could not touch them (Num 6:7).
If he accidentally came in contact with a dead person there were
sacrifices that had to be offered to cleanse the Nazirite (Num 6:9-11).* Most notably the Nazirite was not to
cut the hair of his head (Num 6:5).
This served as a visible indication that the person was set apart unto
God. Of such a person it is said
that "his separation to God is on his head" (Num 6:7b). While this was usually a temporary
thing, Samson was set apart to God in this way his entire life. He would tell Delilah shortly before
his death that he had "been a Nazirite to God from my mother's womb"
(Jud 16:17). Visibly any Israelite
could see that Samson was dedicated to the service of God.
The Spirit of the Lord Moved Him. One of the first things that is said of Samson is that
"the Spirit of the LORD began to move him" (Jud 13:25). The Hebrew word translated
"move" here is pa'am meaning "to
thrust, impel, push, beat persistently" (Gesenius). Throughout the book of Judges the
operation of God's Spirit in the lives of the judges is often manifested in
great strength or military prowess (e.g. Othniel - 3:10; Gideon - 6:34;
Jephthah - 11:29). It is
significant to note that there are more references to this fact in the life of
Samson than any other judge (see Jud 13:25; 14:6, 19; 15:14). Hand in hand with some of the incidents
where we "scratch our heads" puzzled by Samson's behavior Scripture
declares that the Spirit of the LORD came upon him, or moved him. This should make us cautious about
jumping too quickly to conclude that Samson is acting sinfully, if God's Spirit
is with him and working through him.
Taking A Philistine Wife. One
of the first things that puzzles us about Samson is his request that his
parents arrange a marriage for him with "a woman in Timnah of the
daughters of the Philistines" (Jud 14:1). The Israelites were expressly forbidden to intermarry with
pagans (Deut 7:3). Because of this
his parents were disturbed by this request, but the Bible says "his father
and mother did not know that it was of the LORD--that He was seeking an
occasion to move against the Philistines. For at that time the Philistines had
dominion over Israel." (Jud 14:4).
Many translations have capitalized the pronoun "He" in the
phrase "He was seeking" making it sound as if God was seeking an
occasion. In the Hebrew the
antecedent of the pronoun "he" may be found in the phrase "His
father and mother" at the beginning of the verse. If that is the case, it tells us that
Samson was setting up this marriage "of the LORD" and that he
was "seeking occasion to move against the Philistines." If we consider this as his motive, we
can see Samson every step along the way acting upon the opportunities that are
set before him to "move against the Philistines."
example, before his marriage can be consummated Samson throws a feast
(14:10). During this seven day
feast he poses a riddle to 30 of the Philistine men at the feast (14:12,13).
During the feast the men threatened to kill his betrothed wife, if she will not
find out for them the solution (14:15).
She does and Samson travels from Timnah to the coastal Philistine city
of Ashkelon, and kills 30 men bringing their clothes to the 30 men at the feast
(14:19a). Was this carnal
impulsiveness or "seeking an occasion to move against the
does not go back to his betrothed wife but home to parents (14:19b). Thus, the wedding to a pagan woman in
never actually consummated. When
sometime later he does go to her at Timnah, she has been given to another man
(14:20-15:2). In response to this
Samson sends foxes with torches on their tails to burn Philistine crops (15:3-5). Again, is this carnal impulsiveness or "seeking an
occasion to move against the Philistines"? The Philistines in their anger over the burned crops
burn his betrothed wife and her father (15:6). Samson, in response to the murder of his betrothed wife,
moves against them "hip and thigh" (a Hebrew idiom for ferocity)
with a "great slaughter" (15:7,8). Again he is "seeking occasion to move against the
he holds up in the cleft of the rocks of Etam, men of Judah, feeling the
pressure from Philistines who had come up to seize him, come and take him bound
to the Philistines at Lehi (15:9-13).
Samson, through the Spirit of the LORD breaks the bonds and kills 1000
Philistines with the jawbone of a donkey (15:14-17). He again finds another "occasion to move against the
Water from the Rock. After
this slaughter the care that the Lord has for Samson in seen in a tender event
in which his life is preserved.
Thirsty after the battle with the Philistines Samson prays to God for
water and is miraculously given water from a rock that splits (Jud 15:18-20).
The Harlot of Gaza.
The most puzzling
events for many of us come in the last chapter that describes his life. It begins, "Now Samson went to Gaza
and saw a harlot there, and went in to her." (Jud 16:1). Does this man, moved by the Spirit of
God, separated unto His service as a Nazirite, who is seeking occasions to move
against the Philistines give himself to fornication with a Philistine
whore? Perhaps. However, let's be careful to recognize
what is and what it not said about this situation.
was a major coastal city in the heart of Philistine territory some distance
from his own home near Zorah and Eshtaol.
Samson, by then notorious for his slaughter of scores of Philistines
walks into the heart of his enemies' territory. Where would one stay in such a city? The homes of ordinary citizens of a
Philistine stronghold would probably not be open to such a noted enemy. On the other hand, the home of a harlot
would be much less discriminating.
The Hebrew does not use language that is explicit with respect to
whether he committed fornication with the woman or simply stayed with her. The phrase "went in to her"
in Hebrew is literally "went to her." The same wording is used in Genesis 38:16 of Judah and Tamar
where fornication is clearly involved but also in Joshua 2:1 of Rahab and the
spies where fornication is not involved.
The test says that the men of the city hearing that he had come into the
city wait to seize him in the morning (16:2). Samson has other plans. The text says, "Samson lay till midnight, and arose at
midnight" (16:3a, KJV). The
New King James version, perhaps optimistically adds in italics "Samson lay
midnight." Then, in the
middle of the night, he removes the gates and bars of the city gate at carries
them into Israelite territory near Hebron (16:3). Is the behavior of a wild impulsive fornicator or a man "seeking occasion to move
against the Philistines"?
Love for Delilah.
Bible tells us that Samson, "...loved a woman in the Valley of Sorek,
whose name was Delilah." (16:4).
Hollywood, and even some Biblical reference books jump to the conclusion
that Delilah was a Philistine. The
text doesn't say, as was said of his betrothed wife that she was "of the
daughters of the Philistines" (14:1). Sorek was a river valley running between Zimnah and the area
of Zorah and Eshtaol where he lived.
The text doesn't tell us the complete nature of their relationship (i.e.
whether they were married or not).
Nor does it explicitly indicate that it was a sexual relationship, only
that Samson was in her room (16:9) and lulled to sleep (16:19). We often conclude that Delilah
was Philistine because she so readily agrees to deliver him to the Philistines
for 1100 pieces of silver (16:5).
This fact may tell us merely that she was wicked, greedy and like the
men of Judah, willing to deliver a fellow Israelite over to the Philistine
any rate, Delilah begs Samson to tell her the secret of his strength. Three times he deceives her and three
times she arranges for Philistines to come and seize him. After each incident, Delilah pouts and
complains that Samson must not really love her to have deceived her so. Is Samson really so blinded by his love
for her that he doesn't recognize that he was the one who had the right to be
angry at a woman who had tried three times to deliver him to the
Philistines? Either Samson is
behaving foolishly or he is again "seeking occasion to move against the
last he reveals to her, "No razor has ever come upon my head, for I have been
a Nazirite to God from my mother's womb. If I am shaven, then my strength will
leave me, and I shall become weak, and be like any other man."
(16:17). This seems foolish to us
that Samson would give such important information to this wicked woman. Perhaps he did allow his love to blind
him. Or perhaps, as he had done by
allowing the men of Judah to bind him, he was even them "seeking and
occasion to move against the Philistines." Samson does lose his strength when this is done
(16:19). When he awakes for the
first time in the entire record of Samson the Bible says, "the LORD had
departed from Him" (16:20).
Was this because God saw his behavior as rebellion against Him? Perhaps. Or, was it simply that it could no longer be said of Samson
that "his separation to God is on his head" (Num 6:7b). Had Samson been granted strength in
such a condition it would have appeared that Samson's own strength delivered
is taken, his eyes are put out and he is forced to be a grinder in a Philistine
prison (16:21). Over time his hair
grows back and he is brought to a temple of Dagon that the people might make a
spectacle of him. He prays to God, pushes down pillars of the temple
collapsing it on the people and killing 3000 Philistines and himself in the
Conclusion. Was Samson a carnal impulsive wild man
ready to violate his separation to God and fornicate with pagan women at
will? Perhaps. It may be that God worked through him
to deliver Israel in spite of these failings. However, given the fact that the Holy Spirit counts Samson
among the faithful; works through
him time and time again; and Samson himself claims to have kept his Nazirite
separation from the womb, it seems only fair that give him the benefit of the
doubt and consider that his actions all along the way may have been "of
the Lord" as Samson was "seeking an occasion to move against the
Philistines." If so, Samson
is seen not as a foolish, impulsive wild man, but one who creatively
infiltrates the homes, lives and strongholds of the enemy to undermine and and
tear down their dominion over Israel.
* The emphasis in this
instruction for Nazirites seems to involve human bodies. The same phrase in Hebrew translated
"dead person" when used in Lev. 21:11 refers to human bodies. Uncleanness from the carcass of an
animals with paws in general only made one unclean until evening (Lev.
11:27,28). Samson doesn't consider
the touching of the lion's carcass to have broken his Nazirite separation to God
(see Jud 14:9 & 16:17).